How a Piezo Motor Works

Piezoelectricity explains a transducer relationship between electricity and mechanical oscillation. The piezoelectric effect is situated in certain materials which have the capacity to create electricity when put through mechanical stress. This material pressure-rotating, distorting or compressing-has to be simply enough to deform the crystal lattice without fracturing it.

Piezo properties are unique in that they are reversible. It means that materials exhibiting the direct piezoelectric effect, or the creation of electric energy when physical tension is employed, also exhibit the opposite piezo effect, the creation of physical stress when an outside electrical field is applied.

Piezoelectricity was detected in the 1800s by the Curie brothers. At the time, they were only 21 and 24 yrs old. The Curie brothers discovered that quartz crystals created an electrical current when pressured along a primary axis. The definition of piezo is derived from the Greek; Piezein, which translates to mean "to squeeze or press," and piezo, meaning "push."

Exactly what is a Piezo Motor?

A piezo motor utilizes the piezoelectric effect, or the tension that forces a multilayered material, like quartz or Rochelle salt, to bend when charged with an electric current. It does not cause or need magnetic fields, and it's not influenced by them. In that regard, the piezo motor runs more precisely compared to a normal electric motor. It's very little, amazingly strong, rapid and contains neither rotors nor gears.

One time I saw a piezo motor that was the size of a sugar cube. It could maneuver several centimeters at once and could lift just about 1000 times its own weight.

Inside Workings

The piezoelectric motor has been used in microchip development for many years, so it isn't a new idea. Zirconate, lead and titanate powders are refined, morphed to shape, fired, charged, polarized, and tested. To reach polarization, electrical fields are used to align the piezoelectric materials along a primary axis.

It may seem complicated, but the motor functions the same way that substances that contain iron are magnetized. After electricity is applied, it uses its poled ceramic design to create movement through periodic, sinusoidal electrical fields.

The ceramic side is joined with a precision stage, and the resulting driving force from the piezo motor generates stage motion. Depending on how the combining device is constructed, a piezoelectric motor can travel both linearly and in rotationally. The periodic nature of the driving current allows for limitless travel and steady motion.

Types of Piezoelectric Motors

This type of motor has been developed in several different ways for many different uses. The traveling-wave piezo motor is utilized for auto-focus in reflex cameras and the inchworm motor moves linearly. Some piezoelectric motors are employed in camera sensor displacement technology, permitting anti-shake features.

The motor can be used in portable products, healthcare technology products, the automotive industry and in digital household electrical appliances. The piezoelectric motor is becoming a lot more cost-effective, even for mass volume uses in high-precision systems.

Although the motor is one specific application of the piezoelectric effect, numerous other manifestations exist. Currently, modern piezoelectric ceramic is mass-produced for a variety of uses-underwater transducers, medical products, and ultrasonic cleansers, for instance.

For additional information on the piezo motor, you can find a handful of articles, pictures and videos online. You can even learn to build your own. The piezoelectric effect is a fascinating phenomenon, one that we'll likely see widespread use of in the near future.



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