Science Nutrition Degrees For The Health-Minded Individuals

The need for solid nutritional advice seems more imperative today than ever before. With fast-paced lifestyles as the norm, becoming a nutritionist and obtaining a degree in this field will allow a student to educate people about healthy eating on a communal scale or provide personalized support. Students who major in nutrition will learn useful skills that they will be able to apply to assisting others in need of enhanced health and disease control.

Many people who want to get their degrees in nutrition are motivated to help others improve their lives. A nutritionist can advise clients on how to eat balanced meals and often devote time to understanding how nutrients may cure, prevent, or alleviate symptomatic problems of the human body. Students will also learn how to plan meal programs and supervise meal preparation. They will be able to counsel patients, whether in individual or group settings and they will become aware of the effects food has on athletic and mental functions.

Most students striving to obtain their B.S. in Nutrition Science or a related B.S. field are aware that opportunities exist to further their education on post-graduate levels. Master degree programs and doctoral coursework are readily available. Should students receive advance degrees beyond a particular state's minimum requirement, they will most likely have the best job opportunities. Furthermore, a Bachelor's degree is usually necessary if a student wants to become licensed.

College students in this major may expect to take classes in nutrition, foods, chemistry, institution management, biology, physiology, and biochemistry. Additional suggested courses are statistics, computer science, health, psychology, economics, and sociology. High school students who think they might want to pursue this degree path should take biology, mathematics, health, and communications.

Increased public awareness of diabetes and obesity are resulting in subsequent demands for nutritional counseling and therapy. Many full-time nutritionists work the standard forty hour weeks, although some work weekends, too. The work environments vary from kitchens to offices, depending on where people are employed.

Employment in the nutrition field is anticipated to rise nine percent through the 2008-2018 decade and grow at a faster than average rate. The growth is attributed to elevated emphasis on disease prevention and treatment. Numerous jobs in hospitals, outpatient care centers, physicians' offices, and nursing care facilities comprise half of all jobs in this area of expertise.

Government agencies and special food services provide additional employment opportunities that may be explored. Research, administrative, and management positions are other arenas in which students with Bachelor's in nutrition science may be hired. While salaries vary due to geography, community size, experience, and education level, the career outlook for students graduating with their nutrition degrees is good in upcoming years as more workers retire or leave the occupation for personal reasons.

Acquiring a Bachelor's degree in this field can better prepare graduates for exciting and lucrative careers as nutritionists. Taking courses in nutrition will open your eyes to the fascinating ways of how to fuel the human body. Also, a Masters degree should be a great consideration. The intrinsic satisfaction these students experience in their jobs is a bonus, as they assist others in adopting more beneficial health habits. The need for solid health advice is great, yet, the rewards of changing or even saving lives is greater!

The Discovery of the Nucleus

The word atom is no longer being used in its correct context, originally it came from early Greek term 'atomos' to translate to mean 'indivisible'. Thanks to a discovery by British Physicist/Chemist Ernst Rutherford in 1909, this idea began to break down as science started to take a look inside the so-called indivisible atom.

Rutherford began his 'gold foil experiment' in the midst of the JJ Thomson 'Plum Pudding' stage of atomic theories. The experiment involved directing a radioactive source emitting alpha-particles towards gold foil. The gold foil was used because it is very thin so the target is nearly a line of atoms. The area was surrounded by a zinc sulphide screen which will give off a flash of light when hit by an alpha particle. Essentially, the experiment was designed to find out where the alpha particles went after colliding with the nucleus.

The energy levels of the alpha particles were around 6,000,000 eV compared to 0.02 eV of the nearly stationary gold atoms. Because of this the pattern on the detector was fairly unremarkable, most of the alpha particles passed through the gold atoms and whenever an alpha particle struck a gold atom, it simply moved it out of the way. There were however occasional exceptions, 1 in 10,000 alpha particles were deflected by over 90áµ’, these were completely unexplainable with the current impression of the atom.

Using Coulomb's Law (strength of force between two charged particles is inversely proportional to their distance apart squared), Rutherford's team found that the radius between the positive alpha particle and the positive force deflecting it must have been smaller than the radius of the atom in order to achieve the 300N repulsive force required to deflect it by over 90áµ’.

This calculation was extremely significant, it meant that for a neutral gold foil atom, there must be a small, concentrated area of positivity which is surrounded by negativity. Since the electron had already been discovered by Thomson at the end of the 19th century, they must be orbiting the centered positivity, thus the nucleus was born.

This was paradigm changing, the whole concept of the atom was changed and nuclear physics was now well under way, as with many brilliant scientific discoveries it just led to more questions which needed to be answered;

Why don't the electrons and nucleus attract each other and merge? What is keeping the positive subatomic particles together?

These questions needed an answer if the Rutherford 'Nuclear' model of the atom was to be accepted, which kick started nuclear physics and a new dawn for atomic discovery.

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Dinosaurs That Were Bigger than Tyrannnosaurus Rex

Tyrannosaurus rex, otherwise known as T. rex is perhaps the most famous creature known from the fossil record. It is certainly a very well-known dinosaur, but ironically new evidence has emerged over the last decade or so that challenges some of the long held public perceptions regarding this prehistoric monster.

T. rex the World's Most Popular Dinosaur?

Ask a small child what their favourite dinosaur is and it is quite likely that they will say Tyrannosaurus rex. This dinosaur is often referred to as the "superstar predator" of the Late Cretaceous, but just how big and fearsome was this dinosaur? Were there other dinosaurs that were bigger than T. rex? Does this dinosaur deserve the name "king of the tyrant lizards"?

Tyrannosaurus rex is a member of the Tyrannosaurid dinosaur family. This type of meat-eating dinosaur evolved sometime in the Jurassic and as a group they remained relatively insignificant until the Late Cretaceous when they evolved into a number of giant forms and become the apex predators of the northern hemisphere, most notably in Asia and North America. As to the exact origins of the Tyrannosaurs, this remains unclear. Eotyrannus (Eotyrannus lengi) known from a single skeleton discovered on the Isle of Wight (England), shows a number of Tyrannosaur characteristics and some scientists have suggested that this group of dinosaurs originally evolved in Europe. However, some scientists argue that the Tyrannosaurs originated in eastern Asia, citing fossil discoveries such as Guanlong (Guanlong wucaii) from Late Jurassic strata in China as evidence that the ancestors of T. rex were from the Orient.

As a group, the Tyrannosaurids had large, heavy, broad skulls. The jaws were lined with massive, slightly recurved teeth with both sides of each tooth serrated like a saw blade. The teeth, particularly those of later, larger Tyrannosaurids such as T. rex, Gorgosaurus and Daspletosaurus were thickened and in cross section rather D-shaped. The front limbs were very much shorter than in other groups of Theropods such as the Allosaurids. In the last of the Tyrannosaurs, these arms ended in two-fingered hands, with each finger having a sharp claw on the end. The tail was long and muscular and helped these creatures balance. Ironically, T. rex is relatively well represented in the fossil record when compared to other Late Cretaceous meat-eaters. A number of good quality, almost complete skulls are known, the largest of which measures a fraction over 1.7 metres in length.

The skull of Tyrannosaurus rex was powerful enough to crack bone. Assessments on the bite force of this predator indicates that this animal had one of the strongest bites of all animals known to science. The heavy lower jaw had a flexible joint in the middle of it, this trait is found in a number of other unrelated dinosaur meat-eaters. This joint allowed the jaws to flex so that the mouth could be opened very wide to take in extra large pieces of meat and bone. The large orbit (eye socket) indicates that this dinosaur had excellent vision. Measurements taken regarding the approximate size of the optic nerve entering the brain from the eye suggest that this nerve was at least two centimetres thick in large specimens. This would indicate that a great deal of data was being transmitted from this dinosaur's sense of sight into the brain. It had forward facing eyes, giving T. rex stereoscopic vision, a terrific advantage especially when it is considered that T. rex could view the world from fourteen feet in the air - its head perched on top of its powerful neck.

In terms of size, the largest Tyrannosaurus rex known is a robust form, that is currently mounted in the Chicago Field Museum (Chicago, United States). Believed to be a female, this specimen measures over forty-two feet in length and scientists have estimated that this particular animal could have weighed as much as 7,000 kilogrammes. Discovered in the Badlands of South Dakota in the early 1990s this specimen is the largest mounted Tyrannosaur skeleton in the world. However, rumours of an even bigger Tyrannosaurus rex fossil are circulating around scientific circles. The skull, although not completely excavated is believed to be a good six inches bigger than that of Chicago Field Museum specimen.

Even with this new Tyrannosaur discovery, there were a number of other dinosaurs that were much bigger than T. rex. Firstly, a number of plant-eating dinosaurs were much, much bigger, but even in the world of flesh eaters there are several candidates to compete with T. rex for the title of largest meat-eating dinosaur known to science.

Remaining within the Tyrannosaur family we can come across two potential rivals to Tyrannosaurus rex - animals such as Tarbosaurus (Tarbosaurus bataar) from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. The larger of the two Tarbosaurus skeletons mounted in the Palaeontological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow (Russia) measures nearly forty feet long. Then there is the newly discovered Chinese Tyrannosaurus, known as the "Tyrant from Zhucheng city" - Zhuchengtyrannus magus. This Late Cretaceous meat-eater was only formally described in April of this year. It is known from an almost complete skeleton recovered from a dig site over the last twelve months or so. The lower left jawbone (dentary) is almost complete and measures over a metre in length, indicating an animal perhaps as big as Tyrannosaurus rex.

Then we have to consider the other contenders, dinosaurs that were carnivores and bigger than Tyrannosaurus rex. Perhaps the best known of these is Giganotosaurus (Giganotosaurus carolini). The fossils of this dinosaur were first found in Argentina in 1994 and formally described a year later. Giganotosaurus was member of the Allosaur family, it has been estimated to be nearly fifty feet in length and perhaps weighed as much as eight thousand kilogrammes. Then there is Carcharodontosaurus (Carcharodontosaurus saharicus), from north Africa. Although, known from only fragmentary material this Allosaur has been estimated to be around forty-six feet in length.

Finally, there is the little known predator whose fossils were found in the famous Cleveland-Lloyd quarry in the Morrison Formation (Utah). This dinosaur, also a member of the Allosaurids is known as Saurophaganax (S. maximus). The few bones assigned to this genus were discovered before the Second World War, but they were not scientifically studied in detail until the mid 1990s. Little is known about this dinosaur, but estimates suggest that this meat-eater exceeded forty feet in length, rivalling the biggest Tyrannosaurids.

For the time being, T. rex remains the most famous of all dinosaurs, but not the biggest land predator of all time. That is until the next T.rex fossil is discovered.

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Our aim is to help young people learn more about Earth sciences through their fascination with dinosaurs and other prehistoric animals. Team members are happy to provide advice and support supplying free quizzes, drawing materials, puzzles, games even recipes for dinosaur themed biscuits and birthday cakes. With something like 600 products on line including dinosaur party supplies, Everything Dinosaur has built up a strong reputation assisting parents, guardians and fellow teachers, helping young people to learn more about science through creative play.

Time Travel Model of Quantum Mechanics

The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics is baffling, while the many-worlds interpretation is unrealistic. The time travel model attempts to provide a comprehensible explanation.

In this model we assume that the presence of a particle causes vibrations in the time coordinate of spacetime. The wave function may be identified with the amplitude of these temporal vibrations. The square of the wave function is proportional to the strength of these vibrations and gives the likelihood of finding a particle in the vicinity.

The time waves at present overlap the time waves of a moment ago, and so on, so that a particle becomes spread out over all the spacetime between the last interaction and all possible points of the next interaction. If a particle's time coordinate is uncertain, its position and momentum are also uncertain.

When an interaction occurs, the particle is no longer available for time travel and the wave function collapses backward in time to the point of the last interaction. Since we cannot observe the past, the collapse appears instantaneous. The collapse is itself not observable, so nothing observable changes in the past.

The Schrodinger equation states that the frequency of temporal vibration is proportional to the energy. Its complex nature is a mathematical way of describing vibrations. The many-dimensional nature of the wave function is a consequence of the Hamiltonian formulation. There is no implication that the world is actually complex or many dimensional.

The relativity of simultaneity causes a uniform vibration to become a traveling wave when seen from a moving coordinate system, which is why the momentum is obtained by taking the spatial derivative of the wave function.

The antisymmetric Fermi statistics of the wave function under exchange of a pair of identical fermions is a way of stating that the particles cannot occupy the same space at the same time. If all fundamental particles are spin one-half rishon fermions, then the symmetric Bose statistics are simply obtained by exchanging rishons two pairs at a time.

Let us consider two classic examples. In the two-slit experiment, a particle may go through one slit, then back in time, then through the other slit. In the case of two quantum entangled particles, when one is observed, the wave function for that orientation collapses backward in time, leaving only the wave function for the opposite orientation.

If a time wave curved around into a circle much smaller than its wavelength, the entire whirl would appear to oscillate back and forth in time. The whirl could not dissipate due to conservation of energy and angular momentum, or other quantum numbers. We suggest that these whirls are in fact the rishons. It is also a law of nature that a rishon cannot disappear unless it meets its antirishon. This model explains how a particle can produce time waves: particles simply are trapped time waves.

The observed intrinsic spin of a rishon is far greater than what could be possessed by a small rotating mass. In our model, the internal rotational phase velocity of the time waves may be much greater than the speed of light, since no information is conveyed. This may explain how a rishon can have a large angular momentum but little mass. Since a rishon is a cloud of time waves, it would have eigenstates of angular momentum. When its angular momentum (or energy) is measured, one would always find it to be an eigenstate, in accord with general principles of quantum mechanics. This cannot be understood if a rishon is viewed as a point particle.

The V rishon may be the lowest possible energy state, while the T rishon may be the highest possible energy state, perhaps because the phase velocity has slowed down to the speed of light. Any slight instability would cause intermediate states to gain or lose energy and move toward one extreme or the other. This may explain why there are just two stable rishons, light and heavy. The bare mass may be much larger than the observed mass, due to renormalization. Unfortunately it is not known how to calculate this, so hard numbers cannot be given.

The large spin of a rishon eliminates the spherically symmetric S states, leaving the three P states to correspond with the three colors. The T rishon constantly emits and absorbs a cloud of V anti-V particles, corresponding with gluons and photons as the pair carries net color or not. The V rishon does not have enough mass to do this. The weak force arises from the transfer of a group of rishons, the W particle. Small temporal vibrations of a particle could be considered quantum gravity, which might help stabilize the particle. These vibrations might also cause a large-scale distortion of spacetime, similar to thermal expansion. We would perceive this distortion as classical gravity. The Planck equation simply states that this distortion, which we call gravity, mass, or energy is proportional to the frequency of a particle.

A rishon might have a polar temporal field caused by the circular motion of time waves, analogous to a magnetic field. Particles would be ejected preferentially along the direction of this field, because time flows in that direction, thus violating parity. The temporal field would be aligned with or against the direction of external time, corresponding to rishons or antirishons. Because of the time difference, the two would have slightly different reaction rates, producing an excess of hydrogen over antihydrogen, which have the same rishonic content. The photon and gluon are symmetric with respect to matter and antimatter, but the W is not, so only the weak force violates parity.

Time dilation and the relativity of simultaneity are features of special relativity, while in general relativity mass influences the flow of time and gravitational radiation consists in part of time waves. Therefore our concept of time waves has some precedent. Quantum mechanics and general relativity both describe disturbances of spacetime and together provide a complete picture. Everything can be explained as waves, whirls, or bends in spacetime.

When a particle interacts, it stops time-travelling into the past, because the coherence of the time waves is broken. The wave function collapses, or disappears, backward in time. It is as though the wave function never existed at all, so it vanishes instantaneously in all frames, in agreement with the fundamental principle of relativity, that there is no preferred frame.

In the rishon model, all neutral matter has equal amounts of T and anti-T rishons. Under sufficient pressure, theses would be forced together and annihilate, so matter would convert to photons or neutrinos and escape before a naked singularity could form, or in a big crunch.

The collapse of a wave function is an irreversible process, so quantum mechanics does not conserve information, in a black hole, or anywhere else. Gravity is a curvature of spacetime, so the need for gravitons is questionable.

In the rishon model, a photon consists of a V anti-V pair, so, like the neutrino, it might have a small rest mass.

If the wavelength of a rishon's internal time wave is smaller than the rishon, the rishon would still oscillate in time, but in a more complicated way, perhaps giving rise to the effects associated with spin.

The P states mentioned above are conjectured to be states of intrinsic spin having spin one-half.

The photon and vector bosons have different masses because they are made of different rishons. Symmetry breaking is not needed.

Particles are disturbances in spacetime and according to general relativity would therefore have mass. The Higgs mechanism is not needed.

It would be of great interest to discover and study the equations which govern the structure of the rishons.

Jay Daniel Shelton attended the University of British Columbia, where he received a Masters degree in Physics. He is a independent investigator and resides in Fruita, Colorado.

How a Piezo Motor Works

Piezoelectricity explains a transducer relationship between electricity and mechanical oscillation. The piezoelectric effect is situated in certain materials which have the capacity to create electricity when put through mechanical stress. This material pressure-rotating, distorting or compressing-has to be simply enough to deform the crystal lattice without fracturing it.

Piezo properties are unique in that they are reversible. It means that materials exhibiting the direct piezoelectric effect, or the creation of electric energy when physical tension is employed, also exhibit the opposite piezo effect, the creation of physical stress when an outside electrical field is applied.

Piezoelectricity was detected in the 1800s by the Curie brothers. At the time, they were only 21 and 24 yrs old. The Curie brothers discovered that quartz crystals created an electrical current when pressured along a primary axis. The definition of piezo is derived from the Greek; Piezein, which translates to mean "to squeeze or press," and piezo, meaning "push."

Exactly what is a Piezo Motor?

A piezo motor utilizes the piezoelectric effect, or the tension that forces a multilayered material, like quartz or Rochelle salt, to bend when charged with an electric current. It does not cause or need magnetic fields, and it's not influenced by them. In that regard, the piezo motor runs more precisely compared to a normal electric motor. It's very little, amazingly strong, rapid and contains neither rotors nor gears.

One time I saw a piezo motor that was the size of a sugar cube. It could maneuver several centimeters at once and could lift just about 1000 times its own weight.

Inside Workings

The piezoelectric motor has been used in microchip development for many years, so it isn't a new idea. Zirconate, lead and titanate powders are refined, morphed to shape, fired, charged, polarized, and tested. To reach polarization, electrical fields are used to align the piezoelectric materials along a primary axis.

It may seem complicated, but the motor functions the same way that substances that contain iron are magnetized. After electricity is applied, it uses its poled ceramic design to create movement through periodic, sinusoidal electrical fields.

The ceramic side is joined with a precision stage, and the resulting driving force from the piezo motor generates stage motion. Depending on how the combining device is constructed, a piezoelectric motor can travel both linearly and in rotationally. The periodic nature of the driving current allows for limitless travel and steady motion.

Types of Piezoelectric Motors

This type of motor has been developed in several different ways for many different uses. The traveling-wave piezo motor is utilized for auto-focus in reflex cameras and the inchworm motor moves linearly. Some piezoelectric motors are employed in camera sensor displacement technology, permitting anti-shake features.

The motor can be used in portable products, healthcare technology products, the automotive industry and in digital household electrical appliances. The piezoelectric motor is becoming a lot more cost-effective, even for mass volume uses in high-precision systems.

Although the motor is one specific application of the piezoelectric effect, numerous other manifestations exist. Currently, modern piezoelectric ceramic is mass-produced for a variety of uses-underwater transducers, medical products, and ultrasonic cleansers, for instance.

For additional information on the piezo motor, you can find a handful of articles, pictures and videos online. You can even learn to build your own. The piezoelectric effect is a fascinating phenomenon, one that we'll likely see widespread use of in the near future.

World Geographical Facts

At a closer look, the geography of the world we live in offers plenty of interesting things that you wouldn't think of in the first place. Take a moment to discover some curious facts that will make your imagination fly and thoughts wander across the globe. For instance, did you know that:

- The name "Earth" comes from the Anglo-Saxon word "erda", which means ground or soil.

- If Bangladesh had the population density of Australia, there should be only 400,000 people living there. Actually, the Asian country has a population of 164 million.

- Russia has nine time zones. So, when the clocks of Kaliningrad show 12 PM, the clocks in the Kamchatka peninsula will show 9 PM.

- If you are born in Andorra, your chances of reaching at least 82 years old are very high. On the other hand, if you are born in Swaziland, your life expectancy will be around 32 years old.

- The Northern Hemisphere contains about 90% of the human population.

- It will take you 6 days to travel from Moscow to Vladivostok on the Trans-Siberian Railway, the longest railway ever build. The railway has a total length of 9,259 km (5,753 mi).

- All the people in the European country of Georgia can read and write, while only a quarter of the people of Mali can do this.

- The Panama Canal shortens the distance between the Atlantic and Pacific ocean by approximately 13,000 km (8,077 mi).

- The world population increased from 1 billion in 1804 to an estimated 7 billion in 2012.

- The earth's glaciers contain about 70% of the world's fresh water reserves.

- The area of Ecuador is about the same with that of the US state of Oregon.

- Although Germany and Japan occupy only 0.5% of the earth land area, their economies produce 14% of the total global GDP.

- Netherlands is the top chocolate producing country but its chocolate industry depends mostly on the cacao beans cultivated in the Ivory Coast, the biggest producer of this item.

- The average elevation of Turkey is 1,100 m (3,600 ft).

- The Pacific country of Nauru is the world's smallest island nation, covering just 21 square km (8.1 square mi).

- With a total length of 7,000 km (4,350 mi), the Andes is the longest continental mountain range.

- There are 10 cities called Alexandria in the USA. Also, there is at least one city called Alexandria on each continent except Antarctica.

- The Caspian Sea has a surface elevation of -28 m (-92 ft) and it is considered the world's largest lake because it is an enclosed body of water.

- One fifth (20%) of the earth land area is represented by the deserts.

- With an area of 53,000 square km (20,463 square mi), the Vasyugan swamp from western Siberia is the largest swamp in the northern hemisphere.

- Brazil takes up almost half of the area of South America or approximately 47%.

- The Republic of South Sudan declared its independence on 9 July 2011, therefore it is the youngest independent country in the world. Prior to this, Kosovo held this position from 17 February 2008 - the day it declared its independence.

- The Sea of Marmara connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea and it is the smallest sea in the world.

- The urban areas occupy about 1.5% of the total earth land area.

- Istanbul is the only metropolis in the world that is situated on two continents: Europe and Asia.

I have written this article because i have a special interest and passion in geography and and geographical facts especially. If you want to find more curious and interesting facts about the world we live in, please fell free to visit my site,

Asia Geographical Facts

With an area of 44.5 million square km (17.2 million square mi) and a population of 3.879 billion, Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent. Asia covers 30% of the Earth's total land area and it hosts 60 % of the total human population. This great continent presents so many mindblowing curious facts from which a few are mentioned below:

- Myanmar is the current name of the former Southeast Asia country known as Burma or Birmania.

- There are 92 enclaves of Bangladesh on Indian soil and 106 enclaves of India are on Bangladesh soil.

- Indonesia is the largest Muslim country by population, 88% (or 205 million) of its total 238 million people are of Islamic faith.

- Located in the southern part of the Russian region of Siberia, the Baikal lake is the oldest and deepest lake on earth. This lake is 30 million years old and has an average depth of 744.4 m (2442,2 ft).

- The highest temperature ever recorded in Kuweit was 60 degrees C (140 degrees F) and it happened in July 2010.

- Byblos, Sidon, Beirut and Tyre are four cities in Lebanon that are all classified among the oldest cities by continuous habitation.

- Shenzhen has been the fastest growing city in China for the past 30 years. Since the creation of the Special Economic Zone of Shenzen in 1980, the population of this city increased from 30,000 to 10 million inhabitants.

- The Karakoram Highway is the highest paved international road. This road connects China and Pakistan across the Karakoram mountain range at an altitude of 4,693 m (15,397 ft).

- Indonesia is the largest archipelago on earth. It that contains over 17,000 islands.

- Jerusalem is a holy city for three major religions - Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

- Shanghai has the longest metropolitan transportation network. Its rapid transit system has 273 station and over 420 km (260.9 mi) of tracks in use.

- About 50% of the population of the United Arab Emirates comes from the Southern Asia countries of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.

- More than 90% of the population of the Philippines are Christians, thus being one of the largest Christian community in Asia.

- China has over 160 cities that each have more than 1 million inhabitants.

- Lebanon has the most religiously diverse society in the Middle East. This country has 8 state-recognized religious sects.

I have a special interest and passion in the science of geography and and geographical facts. I have written this article when I realised that the great continent of Asia is a generous source of facts that you wouldn't think off in the first place. If you want to read some other interesting articles with geographical facts about the world and its continents, please fell free to visit my site,

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance - A Technique Every Scientist Should Know

Every chemist must know the principles behind NMR. Nuclear magnetic resonance is a technique which utilizes the properties of the nucleus of the atom, in order to understand the structure of the molecule. It is thus an important tool for chemists who would need it for the possible reasons:

1. It can be used to check if a reaction gives the product desired.

2. It can help ensure if the compound is pure

3. It can deduce the structure of the molecule

For these reasons, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance or NMR has become a necessary tool in any organic synthesis department.

One must therefore ask the question, how does it work? The principles of NMR are quite complicated. To simplify this we must take a look at the basics of magnetism. A rotating charged species can create a magnetic field. Thus the nucleus of atoms which has protons and which spins about its axis produces a magnetic field. In NMR spectrometry, the instrument tries to irradiate a radiowave for which the nucleus would resonate, and in return the instrument tries to acquire the signal. However, not every nucleus shows this property.

The hydrogen atom is the most commonly observed atom in NMR. A hydrogen atom has just one proton and therefore it is simple to monitor as well as abundantly found in nature. Also hydrogen atoms which are shielded or deshielded by electrons would give different frequencies of signals and therefore be able to differentiate between functional groups.

One of the main boons of using NMR over other techniques is that the sample being tested is unharmed and it can be recovered. Another advantage is that it is easy to use and one can deduce the chemical structure of an unknown compound to some extent using just one or two experiments within the time span of few minutes.

Advanced techniques in NMR such as 2D NMR, can not only give information about the atoms, but also give information about the bonds connecting the atoms together. Some two dimensional NMR experiments can even predict shapes of the molecules in the solution of the sample.

Three dimensional NMR (3D-NMR) has also been developed and has been useful in deducing structures of proteins and macromolecules. This experiment has several advantages over others for determination of protein structure as you can perform the experiment under physiological conditions similar to those found in the body.

The principles of NMR have also found their way into medicine. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) uses the same principles of NMR where it too irradiates radiowaves into the body to obtain signals from the hydrogen atoms of water in the different tissues. MRI has been useful in detecting many diseases including tumors.

To summarize, nuclear magnetic resonance techniques have found a wide application in today's scientific world. It is slowly growing in such a manner that not knowing the details of how NMR experiments are performed is almost going to be a crime for any scientist. Most research in chemistry, and some research in fields of biochemistry do require the knowledge of NMR spectrometry.


For more information on NMR spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance basics check out The website has very useful information about the technique and has good graphics to explain difficult concepts.

Sam Blazer is a chemist working in a well known institute in USA which requires the use of NMR almost daily. I have used the instrument and would like to share information about this technique.

The Top Five Home Weather Stations

A weather station can be a very useful tool to have. Whether you have a serious interest in the subject of meteorology or if you are just looking for a way to know how to dress the kids for school it can come in handy. Obviously your needs are going to be different depending on what you are planning to use your station for. Therefore our list of the top 5 on the market includes some that are aimed at the person who is serious about meteorology and others that are aimed at people who are just interested in basic knowledge.

1. Davis Instruments 6250 Vantage Vue Wireless Weather Station

This is easily the best option that you will find that you are going to find anywhere, at least that you can get at reasonable price. The Davis Vantage Vue not only provides you with everything that you would get with other stations like temperature, pressure, humidity, etc but it also provides you with all kinds of additional information like windchill, moon phase, sunrise and sunset. The anemometer updates wind speed every two and half seconds which really is a little excessive but other than that we have no complaints. After years of working as a weather man I can say that this home station is more capable than the professional equipment that we used.

2. Ambient Weather WS-2080 Wireless Home Weather Station

This one may well be the best value for your money that you are going to find anywhere. It is easy to use and very accurate. There are some features that are not there that you would find on some of the more advanced weather stations but given that the Ambient Weather WS-2080 costs a fraction of the price it is really a good option. If you are looking for a good quality weather station that will provide you with all of the basic information that you need at a very reasonable price than this is the one to consider.

3. La Crosse Technology WS-7014CH-IT Wireless Forecast Station

This one really isn't a weather station so to speak it basically just measures temperature and humidity. It is also clearly capable of measuring air pressure but rather than telling you what it is it instead uses it as the basis of a weather forecast. The claim is that it is seventy five percent accurate over a period of 12 to 20 hours. This is not particularly accurate but it is better than guessing I suppose. The appeal of the La Crosse Station is that it is easy to use and clearly designed for people who have a fairly limited need when it comes to weather stations. It is not intended for people who are serious about meteorology.

4. Ambient Weather WS-1171 Wireless Advanced Weather Station with Temperature, Dew Point, Barometer and Humidity

Again this an example of a basic weather station that is aimed for people who just want to know have an idea of what the weather is like and not for the serious weather person. This one collects the basic weather data, temperature, humidity and pressure and displays it in an easy to read format. It also includes a simple forecast that is based almost entirely on pressure changes. However it is very popular because of the ease with which it can be set up and the ease with which you can read the information. It is highly recommended to people who just need basic information.

5. RainWise MK-III-RTI Solar Powered Wireless Pro Weather Station w/ Cherry Base Unit

This is a high end weather station and it is clearly intended for the serious user. Really given that it is priced at more than a thousand dollars it is more likely that it will be used by people who have professional requirement to measure the weather. It has all of the features that you would expect on a top of the line weather station and can record all of the important weather parameters. I do have a bit of concern with the way that it is laid out, the rain gauge, the anemometer and the temperature probe are all located in areas where it looks like they could interfere with each other. In certain weather conditions this may affect accuracy, especially temperature with a black rain gauge being located right next to the temperature probe. Nevertheless we consider it to be one of the better options out there if you need a serious weather station.

To learn how to choose the right home weather station for your needs please visit my site, you can also read more reviews of home weather stations while you are there.

The Plastic Brain - Fake It Until You Make It

About a decade ago, Philip Martinez was involved in a motorcycle accident in which the nerves in his left hand were destroyed, leading to an amputation. However, after the amputation he was haunted by his amputated hand, as if it still existed, but was immovable and in excruciating pain. He eventually found Dr. V.S. Ramachandran, a neuroscientist at University of California at San Diego, who had been researching the phenomenon Martinez was experiencing - "phantom limbs".

To help amputees deal with their phantom pain, Ramachandran created an ingenious solution called a mirror box, designed to trick the brain into thinking that it is working with the phantom limb. It is an uncapped box with two compartments separated by a vertical mirror. As Martinez placed his good arm into one of the two compartments and imagined that his amputated hand was in the other compartment, from a certain angle the mirror box allowed him to see the reflected image of his good hand, as if his amputated limb was there. As he moved his good hand while looking at the reflected image, he was not only able to "see" the amputated limb, but to feel it as well. This seems almost as magical as a fantasy. In Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, Harry first saw the sorcerer's stone in his pocket through the Mirror of Erised, before he actually found it in his pocket. Similarly, Ramachandran's mirror box allows someone to see what they want to happen before their brain actually makes it happen.

At first, Martinez felt that the phantom limb was unfrozen and moving again only when looking at the reflection; when he closed his eyes, the painful sensation returned. After four weeks of working with the box for ten minutes a day, the seemingly permanent pain was cured. The mirror box had caused the brain to believe that the nonexistent limb had begun working again, relieving the pain and uncomfortable sensation. The brain had rewired itself - the body faked it until the brain made it.

Neuroplasticity is the characteristic of the brain that allows it to adapt, rewire, and change its structure, similar to the ability of plastic to mold and change shape. The plastic brain defies the long standing theory that brains, especially adult brains, are rigid structures.

In the past, neurologists did many studies to identify which part of the brain controls which body function or action, also known as brain mapping. The previously accepted belief was that these brain maps, once established during childhood, could never be changed; a particular area of the adult brain can control only a certain part of the body so that all regions of brain maps were immutable. It would be as if the boundaries of countries had been permanently established since the beginning of time. However, the discoveries of neuroplasticity in the early 1970's led to an entirely new view- brain maps can expand, diminish, and become more specific to certain sensory inputs and motor functions. Ramachandran witnessed changes in brain maps when he scratched the cheek of a patient experiencing phantom pain. The patient not only felt the scratch in his cheek, but in the phantom limb as well. Confirmed through brain imaging, Ramachandran concluded that the limb's brain map had meshed with the cheek's brain map. Like an emperor with an avid desire to gain territory, the cheek's map was encroaching on the limb's map.

Before designing the illusory mirror box, Ramachandran uncovered the brain map of phantom limbs. He observed that many amputated patients had the limb in a sling before amputation, which caused the brain map to adapt to the "frozen" state of the limb. From a healthy limb, the brain receives motor and sensory outputs signaling the completion of an action, however, after a limb is amputated, the brain no longer receives those messages. The brain therefore continues to think that the limb is frozen because it was not signaled otherwise. If a tree fell in a forest but no one was there to hear the sound, did the tree really make a sound? Was the limb really amputated if the brain was not told so? According to the brain map, the limb was still there, but because it was not responding, the brain pushed harder and harder to try and receive an output signal, leading to excruciating "phantom" pain. The knowledge of changing brain maps combined with the identification of the phantom map, led to the cure for phantom pain.

Aside from the mirror box, another "trick" to change the brain is visualization. Visualization has gained popularity as an alternative way to improve any skill when unable to practice, and has now been proven scientifically through neuroplasticity. Scientist Pascual - Leone of Harvard Medical School studied two groups of people, those who physically practiced the piano, and those who simply imagined practicing the piano. The brains of both groups of people were constantly mapped over the same intervals and showed similar changes. The group who simply imagined playing the piano was able to play almost nearly as well as the group with physical practice, and only needed one physical practice session to catch up. The repetitive imagination of an action strengthens the neuronal connections of that action similar to the way in which physical practice does, resulting in physical improvement.

When I used to train for competitive tennis and was learning a new shot, my coach would say "Imagine this shot in perfect detail several times and it will come more easily to you." I did not appreciate the advice he gave me until now. "Fake it until you make it" seems to have the potential to help anyone with anything, whether it is through the mirror box or visualization. Neuroplasticity is introducing magic into the world of science, like a sprinkle of Tinkerbell's pixie dust.

Best 3 Methods for Effective Home Biogas Plants

Just about anything that's worth doing is worth doing right. Succeeding at home biogas plants is really a case that illustrates this point. Planning carefully up front, getting advice and following it, could possibly make a huge difference in determining whether you will get it right and generally are successful or get it wrong and lose out. Not doing this right, or getting this done poorly, brings on terrible results. You could potentially wind up producing a big odor without any biogas, and even producing complaints about smells from your neighbour.

Listed below are three great suggestions to avert that sort of failure, and succeed.

Initially, to make biogas the way it is produced naturally, in places where anaerobic digestion occurs. Examples of such places are landfills (in a case of that sort we call it dump gas), swamps and marshes. It can be made from just about any biodigestible matter community waste, cut grass, garden refuse, fertilizer, energy crops and any other biomass.

You will definitely need to choose your organic waste feed material carefully from a material which is available to you reliably and is not too seasonal since that will assist avoid running out of waste material to feed your home biogas plant. Failure to achieve this could actually mean that the home biogas plant might stop producing ay useful biogas volumes. So do not make the error of forgetting this important point.

Secondly, you must keep your DIY biogas plant within the temperature ranges of 30-38C (86-100F) and 49-57C (120-135F). So in a chillier climate you've got to warm the biogas processor (digester).

Of nearly the equivalent importance as to make biogas the way it is produced naturally, in places where anaerobic digestion occurs when you are dealing with home biogas plants will be you must keep your home biogas plant within the optimum temperature ranges mentioned previously. I'm forewarning you, this isn't something to miss. It'll help to ensure that you not only make biogas but continue reliably to do so, and everyone involved in DIY biogas plants wants that.

Third, Methane biogas is a mix of gas includes CO2 and methane. It is produced by the biological breakdown of organic material with the lack of oxygen. The advantage of methane is that biogas can be employed as cooking gas. It is awfully clean and is awfully green.

Finally, when dealing with home biogas digesters you ought to make sure and be aware that only an air-tight tank turns the waste into methane. The varied processes that can be utilised for production of gas for energy production in biogas plants are: digestion, pyrolysis and hydrogasification. There are many kinds of biogas plants to use. So, ask an expert which is best. This will likely give assistance with which kind of them is dependent on the biomass type and the amount of gas to be produced, that's a significant component of a successful home biogas facility. Failing to do that could mean that you might not generate enough biogas to profit from the biogas equipment -- and we can probably agree that this will probably be a bad thing!

As mentioned above, when you'd like to ensure success at DIY biogas plants, make sure you steer clear of the sorts of errors that might make you end up producing a big odor without even making any biogas, or perhaps producing complaints about smells from your neighbour. That which you really would like is saving money on cooking fuel gas bills by making enough biogas to cook with, which goal you'll attain by carefully pursuing the 3 steps outlined above.

Learn some ways to enjoy the money saving on cooking fuel bills at this anaerobic digestion home biogas plant website at


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